This is a page of various links on voting systems with a bias in favor of Proportional Representation and Condorcet for when only a single winner is needed. Last update 22 Feb 05.

Elections: Voting systems


  • First Past the Post
  • List Proportional Representation
  • Single Transferable Vote
  • Other Multi member systems
  • Single-Winner Methods
  • Results

    First Past the Post - aka plurality voting, relative majority and Single-Member District Plurality or SMDP.

  • The Canada Elections Act Violates the Constitutional Rights of Canadians The case against First Past the Post

  • Alice Doesn't Vote Here Anymore

  • A blog drawing attention to to FPTP anomalies in Canada

  • Gerry's GalleryA collection of bizarre districts dedicated to Eldridge Gerry

    Proportional Representation

  • Californians for Electoral Reform

  • Proportional Representation Society of Australia



  • The Center for Voting and Democracy

  • Razmjerni Sustavi (An artical I wrote in Serbo-Croat)

    List Proportional Representation

  • Why List Proportional Representation.

  • South African Elections Show the Way Toward Racial Fairness

  • How voters can chose candidates under list PR

  • Allocation Formulas for Party List PR This is also relevant to the allocation of House Representatives between States in the US

  • District systems for PR

  • Systematic Procedures for PR Allocation Formulas (Sainte-Lague & d'Hondt)

  • Sainte-Lague's exchange property Why Sainte-Lague is as close to pure proportionality as you can get.

  • Hills Method: Why the method used for alocating House seats to the states of the US would not be a good method for PR

  • Bias in Allocation Rules for Party List PR(under construction)

    Single Transferable Vote

  • A simple method of implementing Single Transferable Vote

  • A method of implementing Fractional Single Transferable Vote

  • Proportional Representation Society of Australia

  • Center for Voting and Democracy (United States)

  • ACCURATE DEMOCRACY A synthesis of STV and Condorcet ie STV weighted to the centre

  • Proportional Voting in Cambridge An example of a town in the US using STV

  • Another example of STV from Malta

    Other Multi member systems

  • Avoiding civil wars
    A curious hybrid proposed for ethnically divided countries.

    Single-Winner Methods

  • Ossipoff's Standards & Criteria for Evaluating & Comparing Multi-Alternative Single-Winner Social Choice Methods

  • Ossipoff's origional single winner article

  • Approval Voting Home Page

  • Preferential Voting and the VOTE-123 system A lively advocacy for Alternative Vote and Condorcet (but he uses different names)

  • Instant Runoff Voting from Peter Taylor

  • Election methods A good page advocating Condorcet and aproval.

  • A python script tie breaker of Condorcet

  • Condorcet's Method

  • A MATTER OF PREFERENCE? DEFENDING THE SINGLE TRANSFERABLE VOTEThe author equates AV with STV and is more interested in AV


  • Adam Carr's Election Archive currently the best IMO

  • Parliamentary elections around the world

  • UK National Election Resutls since 1945
  • Ireland 87,89,92 Results

  • The 1990 election results for Bosnia

  • The 1992 election results for Albania

  • Elections and Electoral Systems by Country (Richard Kimber's Pages)

    Any coments on these pages welcome: vote(at) (replace (at) by @)
    David Barnsdale

    To Mixed political Links